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Sociology 331: Social Movements (Fitzpatrick)

ASA (American Sociological Association) Style

In sociology, ASA Style is usually the preferred citation style for bibliographies and in-text citations.  However, check with your professor to be sure this is the style they recommend for your work. Here are som tools for learning about ASA Style:

Visit the UNM CAPS Writing Center for additional help with citations. 

Citing Statistical Tables in ASA Style

Citing data and statistical sources isn't as standardized as other types of sources, so it is always a little bit tricky and requires judgement on the part of the author. Keep in mind that the main point is to make it easy for your reader to follow your tracks, both now and in the future when URLs may have changed, or information is no longer available online. 

There are two sections of the ASA Style Guide that you need to consult and combine for recommendations on citing statistics from government agencies:

Tables: "Online Databases, Spreadsheets, and Code Books : Tables in PDF or XLS Spreadsheet format" (p. 109) 

Elements to include in a citation:
Publishing agency. Year. "Table title." Retrieved Month Day, Year (http://url).

Government agencies as authors: Government Documents (p. 57-8 and 104).

Elements to include in a citation:
Executive department. Division. Year. Publication title, Name of series or collection [if applicable], Report number [if included]. Publication place: Publisher. Page numbers [if relevant].

Example: the BJS would be listed as:
U.S. Department of Justice. Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Example of a UCR (Uniform Crime Reports) table:

Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2010. "Table 38: Arrests by Age, 2010." Crime in the United States. Retrieved November 10, 2012 (

Note how I listed "Crime in the United States" as the publication because the UCR is a data series, but Crime in the United States is where the summarized statistics I used in my paper were published.


From Carleton College, Gould Library, Sociology Guide, Kristin Partlo 12/14

Citing Data

As of February 2011, the American Sociological Association requires the citation of datasets in their publications and provides clearer guidance for format:


Example above from: American Sociological Review, Notice to Contributors, p.4. See esp. section 5 "References" under Manuscript Submission, Manuscript Preparation: "References for data sets should include a persistent identifier, such as a Digital Object Identifier (DOI). Persistent identifiers ensure future access to unique published digital objects, such as a text or data set. Persistent identifiers are assigned to data sets by digital archives, such as institutional repositories and partners in the Data Preservation Alliance for the Social Sciences (Data-PASS). Refer to the ASA Style Guide (4th. ed., 2010) for additional examples."


Other resources with tips for citing data include:


From Carleton College, Gould Library, Sociology Guide, Kristin Partlo, 12/14

Managing Your Citations

There are several tools available to help you manage your citations and easily create properly formatted papers and bibliographies. Two of the most popular citation/reference management tools that are supported at UNM are (see News, Events on the UNM Libraries website for information on upcoming workshops):

  • EndNote Basic:  free, cloud-based; click on the link to set up a free account (there is also a pay version of EndNote called "EndNote Desktop")

Visit the UNM Library's EndNote Basic help page for tips on how to setup and use EndNote Basic.

  • Zotero: free, cloud-based and can download and sync with your desktop; click on the link to download and set up a free account

There are other bibliographic management tools as well as other online citation tools that help you to create quick individual citations.  A couple of libraries have good comparison charts of the features of the management tools.  Visit comparison charts on the University of Wisconsin-Madison Libraries and the University of Washington University Libraries websites for more information. 

Please contact me, Liz Cooper (, for questions or assistance.  I am glad to meet with you one-on-one to learn how to use these tools.